III KAL. SEPT. (28) C

Soli et Lunae Circenses

Un antico altare dedicato a Sol si trovava all’interno del Circo Massimo [Tac. Ann. XV, 74, 1]; per Tertulliano l’intero Circo era dedicato a Sol [Tert. Spect. VIII, 1] e per questo al suo interno ospitava un Suo tempio sul cui fastigio si trovava una statua che rappresentava il Dio mentre guidava una quadriga [Tert. Spect. IX, 3; Ant. Lat. I, 197, 17]. Secondo Vitruvio il tempio era privo di copertura al centro (hypaethral) così che la statua di culto fosse sotto il cielo (sub divo) come il tempio di Juppiter Fulgur [Vitr. I, 2, 5]. Non sappiamo quando fu edificato, ma l’iconografia di Sol o Luna che guidano una quadriga, risale alla fine del III – inizio del II sec. aev, quindi la data della dedica è plausibilmente collocabile all’inizio del II sec. aev.

Il tempio originale era distilo e si trovava o nella cavea del Circo Massimo, sul pendio dell’Aventino, oppure nella spina [Tert. Spect. VIII, 5; Isid. Orig. XVIII, 31, 1 – 2; Lyd. Mens. I, 12]  (abbiamo una sua immagine in una moneta di Marco Antonio [Babelon Antonia 34. C 12. Sydenham 1168. Sear Imperators 128. Crawford 496/1]), ma fu restaurato in età imperiale divenendo esastilo [Philip. Saec. 248 Cohen V, 138].  Era anche noto come tempio di Sol e Luna e la data della sua dedica era il 28° Sext. [Fast. Praen. Philoc. ad V Kal. Sept., CIL I², 239; 270; 315].

 

Soli et Lunae Circenses

An ancient altar dedicated to Sol was inside the Circus Maximus [Tac. Ann. XV, 74, 1]; Tertullian for the whole circus was dedicated to Sol [Tert. Spect. VIII, 1] and for this inside your home to a temple on whose pediment was a statue representing the God as he drove a chariot [Tert. Spect. IX, 3; Ant. Lat. I, 197, 17]. According to Vitruvius, the temple was without cover in the center (hypaethral) so that the cult statue was under heaven (sub divo) as the temple of Jupiter Fulgur [Vitr. I, 2, 5]. We do not know when it was built, but the iconography of Sol or Luna driving a chariot, from the end of III – beginning of II century. BCE, then the date of the dedication is plausibly be placed at the beginning of the second century. BCE.

The original temple was distylous and was located or in the auditorium of the Circus Maximus, the Aventine hill, or in the plug [Tert. Spect. VIII, 5; Isid. Orig. XVIII, 31, 1-2; Lyd. Mens. I, 12] (we have an image on a coin of Mark Antony [Babelon Antonia 34. C 12. Sydenham 1168. Sear Imperators 128. Crawford 496/1]), but it was restored in the imperial age becoming hexastyle [Philip. Saec. Cohen 248 V, 138]. It was also known as the Temple of Sol and Luna and the date of her dedication was the 28th Sext. [Fast. Praen. Philoc. to V Kal. Sept., CIL I², 239; 270; 315].

Picture

Marcus Antonius. Denarius, castrensis moneta in Italy (?) 42, AR 3.75 g. M·ANTONI – IMP Head of Marcus Antonius r. with light beard. Rev. III – VIR – R·P·C Distyle temple within which radiate head of Sol set on medallion. Babelon Antonia 34. C 12. Sydenham 1168. Sear Imperators 128. Woytek Arma et Nummi p. 558. RBW 1753. Crawford 496/1.